Article

Title:Site-directed mutagenesis of cytochrome c: reactions with respiratory chain components and superoxide radical.
Authors:Pepelina TY; Chertkova RV; Ostroverkhova TV; Dolgikh DA; Kirpichnikov MP; Grivennikova VG; Vinogradov AD
Publication:Biochemistry (Mosc). 2009 Jun;74(6):625-32.
PubmedID19645667
Abstract
Three forms of horse heart cytochrome c with specific substitutions of heme cleft surface located amino acid residues involved in specific interactions with ubiquinol:cytochrome c reductase (complex III) and cytochrome c oxidase (complex IV) were constructed, and their reactions with superoxide radical produced by NADH:ubiquinone reductase (complex I) were studied. The proteins with six (K27E/E69K/K72E/K86E/K87E/E90K and K8E/E62K/E69K/K72E/K86E/K87E) and eight (K8E/K27E/E62K/E69K/K72E/K86E/K87E/E90K) substitutions were inactive in the cytochrome c oxidase reaction, and their reduction rates by complex III were significantly lower than that seen with acetylated cytochrome c. The reduction of these modified cytochromes c under conditions where complex I generates superoxide was almost completely (about 90%) inhibited by superoxide dismutase. The genetically modified cytochromes c are useful analytical reagents for studies on superoxide generation by the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Quantitative comparison of superoxide-mediated cytochrome c reduction with hydrogen peroxide-mediated Amplex Red oxidation suggests that complex I within its native environment (submitochondrial particles) produces both superoxide (~50%) and hydrogen peroxide (~50%).